Farming communities in the region began their activity around the sixth millenium B. C. and lived in caves and shelters in the mountain area. The decorated vase from the Sima de la Veredilla (cave) is very much a highlight.
Selection of coinage that circulated around Jerez between the 3rd century B.C. and the start of the 19th century. This is an important source of information as regards the economy, politics and society of different periods.
Between the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC one of the most significant stages of the Recent Prehistory is developed in the southwest of the peninsula, also known as the Chalcolithic or the Cooper Age. During this time, characteristic cultural processes, such as the Beaker Horizon, were developed and the first metallurgical techniques appeared. Religious beliefs were captured on rich funeral clothing, such as Alcantara and Torre Melgarejo, and new religious symbols arose. Among these the magnificent eye idols are a highlight.
Material testimony to the civilizations in the 1st millennium B.C. is seen in the archaeological remains from two main sites: Mesas de Asta and Cerro Naranja. Also exhibited is the essential Corinthian helmet from the Guadalete (first half of the 7th century B. C.), one of the most ancient Greek bronzes in the Iberian Peninsula.
The Romanization of Bética (Andalusia) from the 2nd century B. C. would bring about radical cultural change. The pieces reveal different aspects about daily life over these centuries. Notable for their uniqueness are: a portrait of an old man, bone carvings from a tomb or sarcophagi.
The arrival of Barbarian tribes, specifically the Visigoths, in the Iberian peninsula did not mean a complete break from the previous period; instead it served as a transition between Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, as illustrated by the exhibits from the 6th-7th centuries.
Recent successes in archaeological investigations into Jerez's urban nucleus have allowed researchers to acknowledge the pre-almohade origins of the city, as well as learn more about the 'medina' in the 12th-13th century. Besides a magnificent group of green ceramics and Caliphal manganese is a section of wall, street and a dwelling from the Almohade period. Items are distributed across the different domestic rooms according to their use.
After the Castilian conquest in 1264, the region of Jerez witnessed intense transformations after the so-called “Battle of the Strait”. Despite this, the city gradually began to become part of the great commercial systems of the time, as objects imported from different kingdoms in the peninsula and Europe show. There is a wonderful English alabaster relief, and gilded pottery from the kingdoms of Granada and Valencia.
Modern society in Jerez de la Frontera followed the class model of the Ancient Regime. Each individual was obligatorily included in one of the existing classes, according to their social function: noble, ecclesiastical and third state or general. The exhibits reflect aspects of daily life in each of these classes.